Discussion Lead Essay- Popular Culture

Francis Nierman

Comm 370s

Professor Goldman

September 28th, 2019

Snapchat vs Facebook Use and the Rhetorical Functions of Hashtags

The modern day society is obsessed with the concept of sharing various aspects of their lives on the internet. Whether it’s receiving the most likes on facebook or having the highest Snapchat score, we are attached to the idea of narcissism without even recognizing it. It can be argued that it is protruding into the younger generations, adolescents, of society that fall in this category. Something of interest to research was what drives the obsession and jealousy related to adolescents and social media. Another curiosity was finding a correlation between the obsession of popularity and social media applications. Thirdly, I wondered what a solution to this rising issue was and which course of action should be taken. Below is an analysis of hashtag use on social media applications and a discussion of the theory on Snapchat eliciting more jealousy than Facebook.

Snapchat is a social media application that allows users to send messages and photos to their friends with a timer choosing how long it is seen for. Users can also post stories that can be privately shown to their friends or public to anyone who follows their account. The initial release of this application was in 2011 and it became very popular amongst teenagers because of the wide variety of features. A special feature available, that was updated in 2015, was the ability to view any friends top best friends at that time. Names shown as best friends were the ones snapchatted most often by the user which became something that elicited jealousy. It is unknown if the creators designed this intentionally, but young adults seemed to compete for a place on a best friends list that was accessible by everyone. In regards to a situation between a couple where one party has another person showing on the list raising doubts of integrity. With the ability to delete messages and conversations, but still show the most snapchatted people lead to urges of checking what a significant other is up to on Snapchat. 

The ability of an individual to reach out or follow a large audience of people and remain connected to personal friends, family, and professional networking circle had previously been explored before by the 2003 launch of MySpace, but the full potential wasn’t reached until the 2004 launch of the Facebook social networking app. An argument can be made about which application elicits more jealousy than another. This point can be proven by looking at the various population demographics of the society that utilize each application. The younger generations tend to irrationally make posts that are later regretted, but adults are often in this situation as well. All ages experience exposure to other users or even themselves not thinking through what they put out for the internet to see and it may have the ability to be deleted, but it is never erased.  According to Sonja Utz and Nicole Muscanell, “A recent report showed that college students in the U.S. felt they have the most privacy on Snapchat. Also, Snapchat has a reputation for sexting, thus it might be assumed that it is more often used for flirting than Facebook.” (Utz and Muscanell, 2015). Adolescents are often found believing when something is said to disappear after a matter of seconds it has been deleted, but it is still obtainable by the authorities or creators of the application if necessary.  

The Hashtag is a social media feature first introduced to the Twitter networking database in 2007. Daer, Hoffman, and Goodman stated that “From a rhetorical perspective, metacommunicative hashtags should be viewed as “communicative genres” in the sense that they are dynamic, interactive functions of designed software being appropriated by users for tacit, recurring purposes of meaning making within and across social technologies,” (Daer, Hoffman, and Goodman. January, 2015). Essentially the hashtag is the pound icon which users can attach to words about events or sayings to instantly access content with that keyword. For example, if someone were to tweet, “What a beautiful goal! #Letsgocaps”, every tweet and photo shared with that same hashtag would be instantly on one page for the user to view at their leisure. To this point, it can be argued that the Hashtag is a very efficient and user friendly search engine. Hashtags are not exclusive to Twitter because they can also be applied on Instagram, Facebook, Tumblr, and many other social media applications. A pound sign turned into a feature to represent events or sayings has spread throughout popular culture in a handful of ways such as hashtags printed onto clothing or accessories.

Can Hashtags elicit a level of jealousy?  In their normal uses Hashtags are purely keywords that are links to additional content with the same keyword.  It is when the keyword in question is of the nature that elicits jealousy.  

Works Cited:

  • Utz, S.,& Muscanell, N. (2015, February). Snapchat Elicits More Jealousy than Facebook: A Comparison of Snapchat and Facebook Use. Retrieved September 28, 2019, from researchgate.net.  
  • Daer, A. R., Hoffman, R. F., & Goodman, S. (2015, January). Rhetorical Functions of Hashtag Forms Across Social Media Applications. Retrieved September 28, 2019, from researchgate.net.

I Pledge: Francis Nierman

Nierman Literature Review: Trench Warfare

Literature Review: Trench Warfare
By Francis Nierman
Professor Ferrell

Abstract
Trench warfare as a study did not become a focus point for writers until after the conclusion of the Second World War. It will be shown that in the period following the conclusion of the First World War the only sources available were autobiographies and early analytical works of major battles and advancements in the study of military strategy moving forward. After the First World War trench warfare was never seen on the scale that it was seen at during the years of 1914-1918. The literature surrounding trench warfare that holds the most influence is intended for the educated reader who has familiarity with the topic matter.

There is an abundance of sources on the topic of trench warfare, but what is the importance of trench warfare in literature if not for the diversity of the source material on which the literature depends? It should come as no surprise that so traumatized were the victors in the wake of the Great War that historians have been trying to come to terms with it ever since. if it was found that this topic is dominated by European writers. This makes sense as the British’ level of involvement, for instance, in the Great War cannot be compared to the United States’ level of involvement as the United States is geographically isolated.
The literature surrounding trench warfare can be categorized into military history. However as studies have recently shown, that specific field has become very narrow. It has come down to the simple fact that new history is becoming more difficult to find. The literature of trench warfare is one of such studies that has suffered as such. As such it shall be shown that trench warfare studies peaked in the post second world war era in world history.
The literature surrounding trench warfare has publishing dates ranging from directly following the conclusion of the war in 1918, to right before the outbreak of the second world war in 1939. Specifically the year(s) 1920 through 1930 featured an abundance of published works, from oral histories to manuals. Similarly following the conclusion of the second world war in 1945, works relating to the study of trench warfare begin to resurface. Publishing of these works continued throughout the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, but with less frequency than that of the period following the first world war. In addition to this the origin of the majority of the sources dedicated to the study of trench warfare are of European origin.
Published in 1919 With The Allies by Richard Harding Davis presents his recollections that offer a “single authoritative treatment, reasonably small in compass and in price, from which to derive strong and vivid impressions of the character of each of our Allies, of the part each is playing, of the nature of the fighting on each of the various fronts”. The writing style is that of an autobiography which categorizes this source as an oratorical historical account. As it was published one year after the conclusion of the war this source was the oldest source found. As such it does not contain a bibliography or any additional references. While the focus point of the book is not trench warfare, it instead creates a starting point for the literature of the study of trench warfare to develop.
It is not until after the second world war in which the study of trench warfare became a focus point of study for historians. While autobiographies such as With the Allies present true accounts of history these accounts do not offer any new information as the majority of new information has already been analyzed.
In John Ellis’ book Eye-Deep In Hell, it is found that the study of trench warfare is the focus point of the book. Published in 1976, this source contains; photos, maps, and charts depicting the layout as well as the design of the trenches themselves. The accuracy of the charts can be verified by observing the photographs included. This provides the reader with both strong mental and physical images to provide background and context.
All aspects of trench warfare which included the daily routines of the men who lived in them were taken into account. Ellis’ presents his information with oral histories supporting his facts. More importantly it appears that Ellis’ places an emphasis on the individual experiences which left grim memories in the minds of veterans. Ellis does this by providing a quote, whose meaning is meant to reflect the following chapter, at the beginning of every chapter. This adds the ‘humanity’ aspect of the topic into consideration. It could be argued that having an English heritage had an influence on the writing style and motivations of the author.
Another work published in 1980, Trench Warfare 1914-1918: The Live and Let Live System, author Tony Ashworth also presents trench warfare “From the perspective of combatants, trench war was the larger part of the total war experience since most of the soldiers for much of the time fought this form of war”. This statement is Ashworth’s thesis, but he elaborates his thesis further by stating; “Yet from the perspective of military and other historians, it seems that trench war is of less consequence and interest, and certainly, historical works attend less to trench war than large battles”. Ashworth’s methodology is very effective as the point that is being argued is stated outright for the reader’s benefit.
Ashworth goes into great detail when presenting his findings with the support of over seven hundred of added notes in the ‘Notes’ section of the work. Ashworth had same advantage as Ellis in terms of the timing of their published works. Ashworth recognized the changes in what he refers to as the “battle behavior of soldiers”, meaning that the nature of killing which had become somewhat of a second nature to soldiers. This nature being something of an warrior instinct that could be considered a rite of passage for any soldier. Ashworth is an English author, which furthers the argument that a majority of the sources that exist on the study of trench warfare are English in publication origin.
Trench warfare is not just the study of the static war of attrition that plagued the western front during the war, in Surviving Trench Warfare: Technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918, author Bill Rawling presents his study of trench warfare by arguing the importance of well trained troops made the difference in the trenches as opposed to technological advancements which were made effective by such advanced training. Stating in his introduction; “Technology was not enough; the troops themselves had to be involved in the tactical change”. Meaning that no one weapon could replace the effectiveness of one well trained, equipped, and motivated soldier. This source was very useful as it clarified one author’s viewpoint as to how the individual soldier affected the war in the trenches, by placing the focus of the book on the soldiers experiences. Rawling’s published work is also a study of Canadian battle tactics, furthering the point that the majority of the sources dedicated to the study of trench warfare are not of American origin.
In Trench: A History of Trench Warfare on the Western Front, by Stephen Bull, a detailed analysis of trench warfare is given to the reader, much like Eye-Deep In Hell. Published by ‘Osprey Publishing’ in 2010, this source uses seventy-eight sources to provide additional knowledge on the topic, should the reader so chose to do some researching. Bull discusses all aspects of trench warfare in his book, for instance his reliance on period ‘manuals’ in addition to the amount of firsthand accounts would lead the reader to the conclusion that Bull wants to present as accurate of an analysis as he can. It is interesting that once Ashworth’s thesis was identified, more publications on the study of trench warfare that indirectly are in line with his thesis were discovered.
In the ‘Select Bibliography’ section of Trench, half of the author’s sources are dated before the outbreak of the second world war. The remaining ten ‘memoirs and first hand accounts’ are all dated on or after the year 1980. There are no sources from the period(s) during the second world war, and the Korean war. However, there are a few sources during the period of involvement in Vietnam. In summation, there seems to be a gap between when sources were published and when different conflicts have taken place. Following the second world war, historians and military tacticians were focused on learning the lessons from the most recent conflict as whatever occured next was a direct response to the evolution of
warfare as a whole. It can also be noted that Bull drew on the the influences of other authored published works on trench warfare, in Bull’s bibliography he has several notations from Gary Sheffield, for instance. In his bibliography Bull cites information given by Sheffield from two of his (Sheffield’s) previous published works.
The most accurate sources in this case are oral history records. Oral history is both the oldest and most modern form of recording history. It is no surprise that the majority of oral histories cited in Trench are dated right after the conclusion of the Great War in 1918. In the ‘General’ section of the bibliography, twenty six of the cited sources are dated post 1980. These sources are mainly overviews of certain portions of the war as opposed to first hand accounts. This is most likely due to the fact that the veterans of world war I have almost faded away into history themselves or have already had their story told. It is this difficulty that historians encounter when they try to discover new information about a topic.
In his conclusion Bull states that “On the basis of many accounts we might be forgiven for thinking that the trench war of 1914 through 1918 was the war in which nothing of significance, bar death and destruction, ever happened”. Bull refutes this in his book by explaining that trench warfare was also something that brought about a new age of advancements in the field(s) of technology fueled by industry which in turn caused dramatic changes on the battlefield. Bull’s conclusion shares some similarities with Rawling’s thesis, but disputes the point that the soldier who held more influence over the battlefield as opposed to new and advanced technologies. It is also worth noting that Stephen Bull is a writer of European descent.
When comparing Bulls work to Gary Sheffield’s book, A Short History of The First World War there are some key differences in the manner in which trench warfare is analyzed. Whereas Bull’s work is entirely dedicated to the study of trench warfare, Sheffield’s work provides his readers with an overview of the entire Great War itself with limited information on specifically trench warfare. This source can be considered the weakest source discovered as it did not lead to the discovery of any new information about trench warfare itself other than it being classified as a “war of attrition”.
The information that Sheffield does provide on the topic is in the form of discussing the war in the trenches in an chronological fashion. This is one of the key differences between these twenty-first century sources, it is the approach that each author takes towards the study of trench warfare, which in turn re-invigorates the topic in literature.
After a thorough investigation of materials with information relating to trench warfare, it has been discovered that there was no single reference source dedicated to the study of trench warfare. In History of the Modern World: World War I and its consequences, trench warfare is discussed, however not to the level of detail as the other sources previously listed. There are no first hand accounts referenced nor are there any footnotes, as this source could be considered an encyclopedic entry. In the ‘Further Resources’ section of this reference source, only eight sources are used for the section dedicated to the First World War.
All of the sources that have been found that encourage the study of trench warfare to develop were published following the Second World War. This period has been found to be the period in which the literature of trench warfare was at its height as historians and military tacticians were looking at the following major world conflicts. While they are considered secondary sources, they offer more detail and information as opposed to oral histories and other primary sources on account of having a compilation of sources that check the authenticity of one another.
Most of the information regarding the study of trench warfare has already been discovered and published. Leading to the conclusion that the study of the topic is heading into extinction. It is inevitable as it is near impossible to recount and analyze every angle or aspect of history. Trench warfare as a focus point is a very interesting one, to the trained reader. To the average reader a detailed study of earthen entrenchments and how tactics of warfare were developed around this simple concept. To this end, a true an accurate study of trench warfare that has had widespread reach has not been published since before the turn of the 21st century.

Literature Review Bibliography
· Ashworth, Tony. Trench Warfare, 1914-1918 : The Live and Let Live System. London: Macmillan, 1980.
· Bull, Stephen, and Imperial War Museum. Trench : A History of Trench Warfare on the Western Front. Oxford ; Long Island City, NY: Osprey Pub., 2010.
· Cooke, Timothy. History of the Modern World. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1999.
· Davis, Richard Harding. With the Allies. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1919.
· Ellis, John. Eye-deep in Hell : Trench Warfare in World War I. 1st American ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
· Rawling, Bill. Surviving Trench Warfare : Technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918. Toronto ; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1992.
· Sheffield, Gary. A Short History of the First World War. 2014.

Nierman Book Review

Francis Nierman
Shapiro, Laura. Perfection Salad : Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century. Modern Library Pbk. ed. Modern Library Food. New York: Modern Library, 2001.
Perfection Salad is a written history of women and cooking at the turn of the century. Award winning writer Laura Shapiro argues that it was in the last quarter of the nineteenth century that a transformation of cooking as an art form took place. Perfection Salad fails to properly deliver the topic as the author’s methodology can be complex and overall dull to someone not studying this topic.
Laura Shapiro’s work Perfection Salad presents a well-researched history of women as cooking revolutionaries during the latter 19th and early 20th centuries. This book was Shapiro’s first published work, it was published in 1986 by the University of California Press. The copy in hand is the first edition with a new afterward written in 2008. This particular copy is part of the California Studies in Food and Culture series, volume twenty-four. Laura Shapiro is a well accomplished writer as she has worked for reputable news magazines such as; Newsweek, New York Times, Rolling Stone, Granta, and Gourmet. She is also the author of three other books; What She Ate, Julia Child: A Life, and Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America.
The book can be a difficult read if the reader has little to no knowledge about the science of domestic cooking. Shapiro uses the ‘salad’ as a model for the science of home cooking. This can be hard to derive from just one reading of the book. Shapiro’s writing style is very unique and entertaining to someone who is familiar with the topic. When it is not entertaining it can be accused of thought provoking of delicious home cooked meals prepared with love. The goal of cooking was to make the food taste good but also be nutritious without overpowering flavor. Shapiro asserts that “the distinction between an educated cook and a drudge was crucial to establish” (98). The example that Shapiro uses is about the German servant Marta in the book Good Housekeeping. The book has a “fairy-tale” (99) ending with Molly’s cooking restoring favor given to her from in-laws. Shapiro describes Molly the housewife as the angel of the house as Marta cannot cook, nor speak any English.
Perfection Salad is structured into ten sections, eight individual chapters dedicated to the history of the common woman in America during the late 19th century. The book is written chronologically as Shapiro does not stray from one time period to another. In the back of the book Ms. Shapiro included her list of notes, and her bibliography, which is thirteen pages in length. An index is also included, which is six pages in length. There are no footnotes but instead end notes at the back of the book. This may be for the reasoning of the author’s want to present their written work first with the reader referencing the notes section upon completion. There is an introduction in the form of a prologue in which Shapiro asserts that “the nineteenth century was the era that made American cooking American”. This change can only be attributed to a woman’s role in the domestic American household.
The sources that are listed in the bibliography are a collection of journals, scholarly articles, and published books such as the influential novel Twenty Years at Hull-House. Shapiro also consulted a number of culinary science cooking books as well as those on the subject of home economics. There are no pictures aside from the small black and white images at the beginning of each chapter. These 10 images depict some representation of women and domestic labor. None of these images are actual photographs, they are all pieces of progressive artwork. Shapiro uses both primary and secondary sources in this book.
Shapiro begins with discussing the contributions of reformers such, as Catherine Beecher and Mary Lincoln. Catherine Beecher advocated for the start of domestic labor at a young age, “domestic labor should be studied by all young girls, rich and poor” (28). Shapiro then transitions to the study of cooking in accordance with the seasons. She also explains how Mary Lincoln was able to make certain foods “rendered acceptable” (86) to the hungry. This specific chapter was the most humorous chapter out of the entire book. In the afterward of the book Shapiro states that cooking is no longer always associated with women because of the movements made by women in the early twentieth century. However she also points out that home cooking has become a form of lost art given that modern society has other avenues for a quick meal. But while they may be quick they may not be as beneficial as a home cooked meal prepared by a loving woman.
There are two charts in the book, but to the untrained eye the meaning behind these charts can be hard to discern. What is clear is that these charts are recipes from cooking magazines from the early twentieth century. These recipes do not go by step by step instructions as they only list the required materials and how much of each is required. Shapiro states herself that these recipes would be “awkward to read and follow” (197). These charts however do not really serve a literary purpose in this case as there are only two of them and not more. These graphs never actually impacted the domestic household as instead they put an image to what was being constructed.
For the average reader this book could easily be found to be extremely dull. Perfection Salad is a history of the science of cooking, however, resembles a cook book with recipes that could be referenced instead of including them in the text and boring the reader.

Nierman Citino Rewrite

Citino, Robert M. “Military Histories Old and New: A Reintroduction.” The American Historical Review 112, no. 4 (2007): 1070-090.
In his 2007 review essay Military Histories Old and New: A Reintroduction Robert M. Citino argues that obsessing over the shrinking knowledge of military history in academia does not further the field of study.
Citino points out that military history has essentially been put on the backburner of the study of history as a whole. By shifting the concentration in military history to War and Society, Citino argues that this would bring about “new military history. (1071)” According to Citino, “It has been a generation since new military history rode into town promising to save military history from itself. (1071)” Citino claims that “new military history” is the only way to reinvigorate the subject matter.
Using the book The Crucible of War (2000), Citino brings forth the point that military history often is centered on “war and society (1072)”. Citino remarks at the accomplishment of simply compelling the “ordinary reader (1072)” to stay captivated along with the scholar. By stating this, Citino is showing how the trend or study of history will go on.
In addition, Citino is arguing that what history there is already on the topic of military history, does neither the topic nor the study of history justice. By ignoring the non-military portions of history historians ignore the entire scope of history. The importance of why an event happened as well as how it happened is just as important as who was involved.
Military History is linked to conflict. If conflict ceases to exist from society, the study of military history will disappear for good. This presents an argument that conflict is an inevitable subject matter of history that will always remain present. To say that all world conflicts will eventually be nonexistent is an overly simplistic view of society. This simplistic view on society been catered to in an effort to please the general opinions of the public and mainstream media.
Along with presentations of new military history come presentations of war’s impact on society and culture. Citino attributes a new archetype of a historian called “operational military historians. (1081)” Operational Historians place an emphasis on the “history of memory (1082).” The history of memory itself is a collective memory that evolves over time. Furthermore, the history of memory brings more attention to oral history than professional works.
One expands the field of military history and history itself by reading history. In addition to arguing his point, Citino included with proper documentation, case studies which further his point that one should not neglect the non-military side of history. Traditional military history has overshadowed most of the undiscovered or new history.
Modern historians struggle to reconstruct the true versions of history due to the fact that the end result was actually not what they were envisioned. The struggle for the truth and intertwining that with the process that the historian took to arrive at the truth is just as crucial to the history that was discovered. By saying that military historians are doing “good work (1090)” means that the cultural demand is satisfied with what they are being told about the past. This is also a double standard as Citino could be prompting his fellow professionals to take another look at the subject. By doing this they further the study of history in the grand scope. There is more information to be found that is just what is already been studied. This is why Citino uses his sources in his review.